Every year the nation’s medical schools graduate thousands of people with MD and DO degrees. But this is just the start of becoming a practicing physician; they now need to complete residency programs in a specialty area, ranging from 3 to as many as 8 years, to become family physicians, surgeons, radiologists, dermatologists, orthopedists, etc. Indeed, for many physicians this “postgraduate” training (meaning post-medical school, since medical school itself is post-graduate, requiring a bachelor’s degree for entrance) can have two components as well. First there is the primary residency program, say an internal medicine residency of 3 years, and then there is subspecialty training, usually called “fellowship”, where that internist becomes a cardiologist, or endocrinologist, or pulmonary medicine physician. While the internist who completes 3-year residency may practice general internal medicine and thus become a primary care physician for adults, those subspecialists do not. A similar process exists for pediatrics. Family physicians completing their 3 year residencies can also do fellowships in a limited number of areas, and some limit their practices to sports medicine or geriatrics or adolescent medicine, but most add these skills to their primary care practice. And, of course, geriatrics and adolescent medicine are, like general internal medicine or general pediatrics, primary care for a particular population.
This is important. Primary care doctors provide care for their patients that is comprehensive and unrestricted, other than by age for pediatrics, internal medicine, and geriatrics. They meet the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for primary care, providing continuous, comprehensive, community-and-family-centered care. Distilled down, this means that primary care physicians see their patients for everything, whatever concerns them, referring when needed. They are the doctors for their people, not for a particular disease or set of diseases. The lack of sufficient numbers of primary care doctors has significant negative impact on the health of our people. Of course, it falls hardest on those who are always most disadvantaged – the poor, members of minority groups, and rural residents. But it also has negative impact upon the health of privileged people who see lots of subspecialists, in two ways. One is that the specialist may be expert in their field, but miss appropriate treatments, and especially preventive measures, outside it. The other is that many specialties and subspecialties rely on and extensively use care that is very high-tech and expensive, which can lead to people getting tests and treatments that are not only costly but may not be of any benefit, and indeed may lead to harm.
So, when a medical school claims that it is good at producing primary care physicians, this is serious, and should be accurate. But it usually is not, because schools want to look as good as possible so establish criteria that make them look good, counting a wide variety of specialties that their graduates might enter as “primary care”. The biggest “offender” in this regard is counting all graduates entering internal medicine residency programs as entering primary care. As described above, some of these end up doing fellowships to become subspecialists and do not practice primary care; indeed, “some” is an understatement as it is about 80%. In addition, about half the rest end up practicing as “hospitalists”, taking care of hospitalized patients only, rather than practicing primary care. So an approximation would be to assume about 10% of those entering internal medicine residencies will practice primary care. In pediatrics, continuing as a general pediatrician is much more common; the appropriate multiplier is probably 60%, and for family medicine as much as 95%. There are also residency programs in a combination of medicine and pediatrics (Med/Peds) which can produce primary care doctors, and whose graduates are less likely to pursue subspecialty training; however, they are very likely to choose only one of those areas (adult medicine or pediatrics) and also to become hospitalists.
In addition, some (or many) schools include in the primary care numbers specialties that are simply not primary care at all. Most commonly, they include emergency medicine and obstetrics/gynecology. Emergency medicine does indeed provide first-contact care, but it does not provide continuity. Obstetrics/gynecology can provide some aspects of primary care (and indeed OBGyns may be the only doctors some young women see) but it is limited in that it is not comprehensive; women are more than their reproductive tracts, and they can have a variety of conditions OBGYN does not care for (diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, depression, arthritis, asthma and other lung problems, substance abuse, etc., to name a few). Perhaps the most egregious abuse is counting all students who enter internal medicine “transitional” or “preliminary” years. Such one-year programs, which have replaced the old “rotating internships”, are required for many specialties such as neurology, anesthesiology, radiology, ophthalmology, dermatology, and others, whose practitioners do not do primary care at all.
If we want to know how well a school is doing in graduating students who actually practice primary care at the end of their residency and fellowship training, these inflated numbers do not inform us. Fortunately, one of the most popular sources of information on medical (and other) schools, US News, has worked with the Robert Graham Center, the policy center of the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) to develop and publish a metric that does show which schools actually produce primary care physicians, available at https://www.usnews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-medical-schools/graduates-practicing-primary-care-rankings. The top of this list is dominated by schools of osteopathic medicine, which consistently graduate higher numbers of primary care physicians, and, among the allopathic schools, the mainly public schools who have been doing well in this area for a long time. The private, largely northeastern, schools that usually top rank lists are nowhere to be found.
It is important to look at this list, not the list of “Top Primary Care Schools”, to get accurate data on production of primary care physicians. The metric on percent of students going into primary care has also been fixed in the “Top Primary Care” rankings, so it is better, but it still only accounts for 40% of that ranking. “Peer Assessment” (subjective rankings) account for 30%, half from medical school deans and other leaders, and half from residency directors. The other 30% is half “faculty resources” (largely faculty ratio) which may be skewed to the advantage of research-intensive schools, because it includes faculty who are mostly in laboratories and not teaching, and half “student selectivity” (based on student grades and MCAT scores), which is actually negatively associated with entry into primary care. This doesn’t mean the students that enter primary care are not as smart; it means that the cachet of attending a research-intensive school makes the competition greater. Unsurprisingly, adding these other criteria does affect the rankings; Harvard, for example, is now #8 in “best primary care schools”, although it ranks #141 of 159 schools in percent of graduates practicing primary care. (In contrast, the University of Kansas, which ranks #9 in primary care, below Harvard, ranks #17 in graduates practicing primary care, at 37.8%). Reputation affects peer assessments in at least 3 ways. One is spillover effect -- well, it’s Harvard, and good in everything so it must be good in primary care. A second is the ignorance of non-primary care deans and residency directors about what kinds of doctors the school produces. Finally, the fact that “good in primary care” can mean things other than what specialties the graduates enter can have an effect; there are schools in which the family medicine and other primary care faculty are well-known for their research and leadership in national organizations, but which do not graduate very many students into primary care disciplines.
The fact remains, though, that the US very short of the primary care doctors it needs to provide quality health care to the American people. The way to begin to change that is to stop deceiving ourselves. Then we can start the process of producing a higher percentage, in every school.